Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o (pronounced [ŋɡoɣe wa ðiɔŋɔ]; born January 5, 1938) is a Kenyan author, formerly working in English and now working in Gĩkũyũ. His work includes novels, plays, short stories, and essays, ranging from literary and social criticism to children’s literature. He is the founder and editor of the Gikuyu-language journal, Mutiiri.
In 1977, Ngugi embarked upon a novel form of theater in his native Kenya which sought to liberate the theatrical process from what he held to be “the general bourgeois education system”, by encouraging spontaneity and audience participation in the performances. Ngugi’s project sought to “demystify” the theatrical process, and to avoid the “process of alienation [which] produces a gallery of active stars and an undifferentiated mass of grateful admirers” which, according to Ngugi, encourages passivity in “ordinary people”. Although Ngaahika Ndeenda was a commercial success, it was shut down by the authoritarian Kenyan regime six weeks after its opening. Ngugi was subsequently imprisoned for over a year.
Adopted as an Amnesty Prisoner of Conscience, the artist was released from prison, and fled Kenya. In the United States, he taught atYale University for some years, and has since also taught at New York University, with a dual professorship in Comparative Literature andPerformance Studies, and the University of California, Irvine. Ngũgĩ has frequently been regarded as a likely candidate for the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Ngũgĩ was born in Kamiriithu, near Limuru in Kiambu district, Kenya, of Kĩkũyũ descent, and baptised James Ngugi. His family was caught up in the Mau Mau rebellion; his half brother Mwangi was actively involved in the Kenya Land and Freedom Army, and his mother was tortured at Kamriithu homeguard post. He received a B.A. in English from Makerere University College in Kampala, Uganda, in 1963; during his education, a play of his, The Black Hermit, was produced in Kampala in 1962.
He published his first novel, Weep Not, Child, in 1964, which he wrote while attending the University of Leeds in England. It was the first novel in English to be published by an East African. His second novel, The River Between (1965), has as its background the Mau Mau rebellion, and described an unhappy romance between Christians and non-Christians. The River Between is currently on Kenya’s national secondary school syllabus.
His novel A Grain of Wheat (1967) marked his embrace of Fanonist Marxism. He subsequently renounced English, Christianity, and the name James Ngugi as colonialist; he changed his name back to Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o, and began to write in his native Gĩkũyũ and Swahili. The uncensored political message of his 1977 play Ngaahika Ndeenda (I Will Marry When I Want) provoked then Vice President Daniel arap Moi to order his arrest. While detained in the Kamiti Maximum Security Prison, he wrote the first modern novel in Gĩkũyũ, Caitaani mũtharaba-Inĩ (Devil on the Cross), on prison-issued toilet paper.
After his release, he was not reinstated to his job as professor at Nairobi University, and his family was harassed. Due to his writing about the injustices of the dictatorial government at the time, Ngugi and his family were forced to live in exile. Only after Arap Moi was voted out of office, 22 years later, was it safe for them to return.
His later works include Detained, his prison diary (1981), Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature (1986), an essay arguing for African writers’ expression in their native languages, rather than European languages, in order to renounce lingering colonial ties and to build an authentic African literature, and Matigari (1987), one of his most famous works, a satire based on a Gĩkũyũ folktale.
In 1992 he became a professor of Comparative Literature and Performance Studies at New York University, where he held the Erich Maria Remarque Chair. He is currently a Distinguished Professor of English and Comparative Literature as well as the Director of the International Center for Writing and Translation at the University of California, Irvine.
On August 8, 2004, Ngũgĩ returned to Kenya as part of a month-long tour of East Africa. On August 11, robbers broke into his apartment: they assaulted both the Professor and his wife, and stole money and a computer. Since then, Ngũgĩ has returned to America, and in the summer 2006 the American publishing firm Random House published his first new novel in nearly two decades, Wizard of the Crow, translated to English from Gĩkũyũ by the author.
On November 10, 2006, while in San Francisco at Hotel Vitale at the Embarcadero, Ngũgĩ was harassed and ordered to leave the hotel by an employee. The event led to a public outcry and angered the Kenyan community in the San Francisco Bay area and abroad, prompting an apology by the hotel.
- The Black Hermit, 1963 (play)
- Weep Not, Child, 1964, Heinemann 1987, McMillan 2005, ISBN 1-4050-7331-4
- The River Between, Heinemann 1965, Heinemann 1989, ISBN 0-435-90548-1
- A Grain of Wheat, 1967 (1992) ISBN 0-14-118699-2
- This Time Tomorrow (three plays, including the title play, “The Reels,” and “The Wound in the Heart”), c. 1970
- Homecoming: Essays on African and Caribbean Literature, Culture, and Politics, Heinemann 1972, ISBN 0-435-18580-2
- A Meeting in the Dark (1974)
- Secret Lives, and Other Stories, 1976, Heinemann 1992 ISBN 0-435-90975-4
- The Trial of Dedan Kimathi (play), 1976, ISBN 0-435-90191-5, African Publishing Group, ISBN 0-949932-45-0 (with Micere Githae Mugo and Njaka)
- Ngaahika Ndeenda: Ithaako ria ngerekano (I Will Marry When I Want), 1977 (play; with Ngugi wa Mirii), Heinemann Educational Books (1980)
- Petals of Blood, (1977) Penguin 2002, ISBN 0-14-118702-6
- Caitaani mutharaba-Ini (Devil on the Cross), 1980
- Writers in Politics: Essays, 1981 ISBN 978-0-85255-541-5 (UK) ISBN 978-0-43508-985-6 (US)
- Education for a National Culture, 1981
- Detained: A Writer’s Prison Diary, 1981
- Devil on the Cross (English translation of Caitaani mutharaba-Ini), Heinemann, 1982, ISBN 0-435-90200-8
- Barrel of a Pen: Resistance to Repression in Neo-Colonial Kenya, 1983
- Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature, 1986 ISBN 978-0-85255-501-9 (UK) ISBN 978-0-435-08016-7 (US)
- Mother, Sing For Me, 1986
- Writing against Neo-Colonialism, 1986
- Njamba Nene and the Flying Bus (Njamba Nene na Mbaathi i Mathagu), 1986 (children’s book)
- Matigari ma Njiruungi, 1986
- Njamba Nene and the Cruel Chief (Njamba Nene na Chibu King’ang’i), 1988 (children’s book)
- Matigari, (translated into English by Wangui wa Goro), Heinemann 1989, Africa World Press 1994, ISBN 0-435-90546-5
- Njamba Nene’s Pistol (Bathitoora ya Njamba Nene), (children’s book), 1990, Africa World Press, ISBN 0-86543-081-0
- Moving the Centre: The Struggle for Cultural Freedom, Heinemann, 1993, ISBN 978-0-435-08079-2 (US) ISBN 978-0-85255-530-9 (UK)
- Penpoints, Gunpoints and Dreams: The Performance of Literature and Power in Post-Colonial Africa, (The Clarendon Lectures in English Literature 1996), Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-19-818390-9
- Mũrogi wa Kagogo (Wizard of the Crow), 2004, East African Educational Publishers, ISBN 9966-25-162-6
- Wizard of the Crow, 2006, Secker, ISBN 1-84655-034-3
- Something Torn and New: An African Renaissance, Basic Civitas Books, 2009, ISBN 978-0465009466
- Dreams in a Time of War: a Childhood Memoir, Harvill Secker, 2010, ISBN 978-1846553776